- 1 MOSES MICHAEL HAYS LODGE
- 2 REFERENCES IN GRAND LODGE PROCEEDINGS
MOSES MICHAEL HAYS LODGE
Chartered By: Curtis Chipman
Charter Date: 09/14/1932 1932-165
Precedence Date: 12/07/1931
Current Status: Active
- Putnam merged here, 06/27/1978 (1978-98)
- Temple merged here, 07/09/1985 (1985-110)
- Brotherhood merged here, 07/15/1986 (1986-80)
- Sharon merged here, 07/11/1989 (1989-82)
- Freedom merged here, 09/14/1999 (1999-97)
- Adelphi-Noddles Island merged here, 08/14/2003 (2003-93)
- T. Rutherford Edwards, 1931, 1932
- Joseph Brettler, 1933, 1934
- Harry Smith, 1935, 1936
- Joseph S. Rosen, 1937, 1938
- Milton Garb, 1939, 1940
- Howard S. Gulton, 1941, 1942
- Ralph J. Cohen, 1943, 1944; N
- Leo Stiglitz, 1945, 1946
- Albert M. Krensky, 1947, 1948
- Clarence Yanofsky, 1949, 1950
- Samuel Winetsky, 1951
- Mitchell M. Rosser, 1952
- Maurice Levin, 1953
- Charles Copeland, 1954
- Jack A. Winetsky, 1955
- Maurice Verdun, 1956
- Philip Tasker, 1957
- Robert Jaffe, 1958
- Edward Cohen, 1959
- Nathan Sepinuck, 1960
- Bencion M. Moskow, 1961
- Ralph Levine, 1962
- Sidney M. Liner, 1963
- Harold J. Kaswell, 1964; N
- Jay I. W. Moskow, 1965
- Mitchell E. Phillips, 1966
- Theodore Jaffe, 1967
- Frederick H. Goldstein, 1968
- Joseph Ganz, 1969
- Charles W. Weinfeld, 1970
- James Epstein, 1971, 1979
- Robert D. Kaplan, 1972
- Donald L. Hoffman, 1973
- David H. Jacobs, 1974
- Marshall I. Karp, 1975
- Norman J. Kaswell, 1976, 1978
- Harry L. Ginesky, 1977
- Jason S. Orlov, 1980
- Ronald A. Koven, 1981
- Robert D. Levinson, 1982, 1983, 1987
- Stephen M. Baker, 1984
- Stanley G. Winer, 1985, 1986; SN
- Joseph J. Levitan, 1988
- Peter E. Cornwell, 1989
- Abner S. Salant, 1990, 1995
- Haskell C. Williams, 1991, 1992
- Neil D. Silverman, 1993, 1994
- Harold J. Salant, 1996, 1997, 2006
- Stanley S. Marshall, 1998, 1999
- Michael K. Sack, 2000-2005
- Allan St. Germain, 2007
- Herbert Elsner, 2008, 2009
- James E. Stallions, 2010
- Robert J. Cotton. 2011
- Kevin B. McNeely, 2012
REFERENCES IN GRAND LODGE PROCEEDINGS
- Petition for Dispensation: 1931
- Petition for Charter: 1932
- Consolidation Petition (with Putnam Lodge): 1978
- Consolidation Petition (with Temple Lodge): 1985
- Consolidation Petition (with Brotherhood Lodge): 1986
- Consolidation Petition (with Sharon Lodge): 1989
- Consolidation Petition (with Freedom Lodge): 1999
- Consolidation Petition (with Adelphi-Noddles Island Lodge): 2003
VISITS BY GRAND MASTER
- 1932 (Chipman; Constitution of Lodge and installation)
- 1934 (Chipman)
- 1937 (Allen; 2 visits, including one at Boston Copley Plaza Hotel)
- 1938 (Perry; Frederick W. Hamilton Night)
- 1940 (Perry; Ladies' Night, at Hotel Statler)
- 1941 (Schaefer; 2 visits; New Year's Eve party, 12/31/1940, and Harry Stevens Night)
- 1941 (Schaefer; "Brettler Night")
- 1941 (A. Jenkins; 25th Anniversary)
- 1978 (Melanson; consolidation with Putnam Lodge)
- 1982 (Berquist; 50th Anniversary)
- 1985 (Richardson; consolidation with Temple Lodge)
- 1986 (Richardson; consolidation with Brotherhood Lodge)
- 1989 (Ames; consolidation with Sharon Lodge)
- 1991 (Darling)
- 1992 (Darling; 60th Anniversary)
- 1999 (Bauer; consolidation with Freedom Lodge)
- 2003 (Hicks; consolidation with Adelphi-Noddles Island Lodge)
- 2005 (Hodgdon)
- 1957 (25th Anniversary History, 1957-3; see below)
- 1982 (50th Anniversary History, 1982-46; see below)
25TH ANNIVERSARY HISTORY, MARCH 1957
From Proceedings, Page 1957-3:
By Worshipful E. Louis Greenblatt.
When men of good will, possessed of a true Masonic spirit, join their hearts and minds in one common purpose, their labors reflect the true image of our Creator. Recorded history recounts that many of man's great accomplishments were made during periods of stress and turmoil. This is proof that truly sincere men can do their best creating and thinking when "the chips are down." Under such circumstances and during the depths of a world economic depression did Moses Michael Hays Lodge come into being. In celebrating the Silver Anniversary of Moses Michael Hays Lodge, it is fitting that we should reflect upon the labors of those Masons who for twenty-five years have witnessed the growth of an idea into its present maturity.
In September 1931, a group of enthusiastic Masons headed by the late Harry A. Friedland, a member of Germania Lodge, approached Worshipful Joseph Brettler, a Past Master of Germania Lodge, and enlisted his aid in the formation of a new Masonic Lodge in Boston. Wor. Brother Brettler, a learned and devout Mason, lent an attentive ear and interested two other accomplished Masons, Wor. T. Rutherford Edwards, Past Master of Revere Lodge, and Wor. Harry Smith, Past Master of Shawmut Lodge, in this endeavor. Several informal meetings of this organizing group followed, at which the charter list was completed and a name selected for the Lodge. Wor. Harry Smith, an experienced student of Freemasonry, suggested that the Lodge be named Moses Michael Hays in order to perpetuate the name of a great American, humanitarian and distinguished Mason who had served as Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts from 1788 to 1792. We were fortunate to be joined in our charter list by several other distinguished Masons, R. W. Samuel Hauser, Past Senior Grand Warden, R. W. Arthur E. Fisk and R.W. Frank S. Jones, Past District Deputy Grand Masters, and Wor. Henry W. Stevens, who later was elected Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts.
The news of our efforts to erect another structure in Freemasonry spread rapidly throughout the Boston area, and scores of Masons eagerly sought to be included in our charter list. It was decided to limit this list to fifty members and to bring to it only Masons with the determination required for success. Because of an error in listing, it was agreed to permit two more names to be added and to close the list at fifty-two members.
On December 1, 1931, Worshipful Brothers Brettler, Edwards and Smith waited upon Most Worshipful Herbert W. Dean, Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts, and presented him with a petition signed by the fifty-two Charter Members and praying to be congregated as Moses Michael Hays Lodge with permission to meet in Boston.
On December 8, 1931, R. W. Robert S. Chase, District Deputy Grand Master of the Boston Second Masonic District, advised that he had received a dispensation from the Grand Master for the formation of Moses Michael Hays Lodge.
A meeting of the petitioners was called at the Masonic Temple, Boston, on Tuesday, December 22, 1931, at which R. W. Robert S. Chase read the dispensation, and with the assistance of Wor. Frank E. Mclntyre, District Deputy Grand Marshal, and Wor. and Rev. Warren P. Landers, Grand Chaplain, seated Wor. T. Rutherford Edwards as Master, Wor. Joseph Brettler as Senior Warden, and Wor. Harry Smith as Junior Warden. Revere Lodge of Boston graciously loaned us the use of their regalia for this occasion. Wor. Bradford L. Ames was next seated as Treasurer and R.W. Arthur E. Fisk as Secretary. Wor. Bro. Edwards appointed the following line officers:
- Chaplain, Bro. Charles J. Jaffe
- Marshal, Wor. Henry W. Stevens
- Senior Deacon, Bro. Harry A. Friedland
- Junior Deacon, Bro. Joseph R. Rosen
- Senior Steward, Bro. Milton Garb
- Junior Steward, Bro. Howard S. Gutlon
- Inside Sentinel, Bro. Ralph J. Cohen
- Tyler, Bro. Samuel D. Basch
Thus, in an atmosphere of solemnity and dignity was Moses Michael Hays Lodge instituted.
Wor. Brother Edwards, or "Ted" as he was popularly known, received his Masonic degrees in Liverpool, England, and he recommended that we pattern our new Lodge after the general plan of English Lodges where the memberships are small, and consequently result in closer contacts and friendships among the Brethren. Accordingly, our first By-Laws stipulated that no more than three candidates would be taken in any class. For a number of years, therefore, our growth was slow and our members got to know each other intimately.
At our second communication, Bro. Joseph R. Rosen, nationally known engrosser and illuminator, submitted a design for the front page of our Lodge notice. The fine artistry was acclaimed and adopted by the members, and is to this day the distinctive and attractive frontispiece of our Lodge notice.
Several Lodges in the Boston area graciously offered their assistance in getting Moses Michael Hays Lodge off to a good start. Through the courtesy and genuine Masonic friendship of Wor. Bro. Max H. Summerfield and the members of Major General Henry Knox Lodge, we were granted the use of their regalia during our period of dispensation.
At our fourth communication held on March 22, 1932, we initiated the first class, at which Brothers Louis E. Chervin, George Sherman and Leo Stiglitz received their Entered Apprentice Degree.
At our fifth communication on April 26, 1932, Brothers Max M. and Milton Garb jointly presented to the Lodge a beautiful set of the Three Great Lights, which were accepted by the Worshipful Master on behalf of the Lodge.
The early years of our Lodge found most of our members attending meetings dressed in tuxedo, and such members who found it necessary to be absent, were requested to communicate with the Master by letter or telephone in order that all members might be accounted for. At dinner, we would pause to drink a toast to our absent Brethren.
Under the excellent tutelage of Wor. Bro. Edwards, our line officers promptly became proficient in the ritual work. We also will never forget the patient and friendly instruction of Wor. Henry W. Stevens in our floor work, when, starting with a group of amateurs who found it difficult to distinguish the right foot from the left, he drilled them into a smooth and orderly team, evoking much pleasing and favorable comment from the side lines.
Our seventh communication was held on June 28, 1932, at which Brothers Chervin, Sherman and Stiglitz were raised to the Sublime Degree. These three Brothers as the first class to be raised, presented the Lodge with a beautiful set of sterling silver working tools.
At the quarterly communication of the Grand Lodge held on September 14, 1932, a Charter was granted to our Lodge and announcement was made that the Lodge would be constituted on Tuesday, November 22.
At our ninth communication on October 25, 1932, Brothers Lyman Croan, Samuel Lebow and Joseph Greenbaum presented the Lodge with a complete set of officers' batons and other implements in honor of having received their Master Mason Degree.
With pleasant anticipation did we await our tenth communication on November 22, 1932, at which 280 Brethren assembled in the banquet-hall to welcome to dinner the Most Worshipful Grand Master and Grand Lodge Officers, escorted by Wor. T. Rutherford Edwards. At 8 P. M., Most Worshipful Curtis Chipman, Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts, accompanied by his Grand Lodge Officers and an elaborate suite of distinguished Masons, assembled in Ionic Hall and constituted our Lodge in due and ancient form. It was a most solemn and impressive ceremony. The M.W. Grand Master and his Officers then installed the officers of Moses Michael Hays Lodge in their respective stations. A distinguished visitor on this occasion was Most Worshipful A. Stirling McKay, Past Grand Master of Masons of Prince Edward Island.
M.W. Brother Chipman delivered an interesting and inspiring address in which he welcomed Moses Michael Hays Lodge into the Grand Lodge, wished us success, and congratulated us in our honoring the memory of an eminent and distinguished Mason by naming our Lodge for him. A vacancy having occurred in the office of Treasurer, by special dispensation of the Grand Master, an election was held and E. Louis Greenblatt was elected Treasurer on March 28, 1933.
Wor. T. Rutherford Edwards will never be forgotten by those who had the privilege to know and work with him. During his two years as Worshipful Master, our Lodge activities were solidly established and we could look with confidence to the future. During his administration, Honorary Membership was conferred on M. W. Herbert W. Dean, Past Grand Master, M. W. Curtis Chipman, Grand Master, R. W. Frederick W. Hamilton, Grand Secretary, and R. W. Robert S. Chase, Past District Deputy Grand Master, who had honored us with many courtesies.
Wor. Joseph Brettler, to whom we reverently refer as the Father of Moses Michael Hays Lodge, was installed Master on December 7, 1933. A large delegation of members of Germania Lodge came to pay honor and respect to their popular Past Master. Joe's wide popularity in Freemasonry brought to our meetings many Brethren from other Lodges. He arranged testimonial nights to honor M. W. Herbert W. Dean, M. W. Curtis Chipman and R. W. Frederick W. Hamilton, who had assisted us in the founding of our Lodge. Honorary Membership was conferred on Wor. T. Rutherford Edwards, Wor. Henry W. Stevens, R. W. Albert A. Schaefer and R .W. Arthur E. Fisk. On November 29, 1935, our Lodge participated in a Masonic Night at Temple Ohabei Shalom at the invitation of Rabbi and Brother Samuel L Abrams.
Under Wor. Bro. Brettler's administration, we held our first Ladies' Night at Weber Duck Inn on June 11, 1934, where 200 of our members and their ladies enjoyed an excellent dinner and dancing. Two other ladies' parties followed later in the year. At our Legislative Night on February 7, 1935, we were visited by a large group of Masons in the Massachusetts Legislature, headed by the Honorable and Brother Leverett Saltonstall, Speaker of the House of Representatives and later elected Governor and Senator.
We were truly proud of our Charter Member, Brother Louis Joseph, when he was installed Master of Shawmut Lodge in September 1935.
An outstanding event in our Lodge's history was indeed the 41st regular communication on December 5, 1935, when Wor. Harry Smith was installed as the third Master by the Charles Ramsay Club, under the direction of R. W. Arthur A. Sondheim, Past District Deputy Grand Master of the Boston First Masonic District, assisted by several Past Masters of Shawmut Lodge, of which Wor. Harry Smith was also a Past Master. R. W. Brother Sondheim, a beloved and respected Mason throughout the Massachusetts jurisdiction, installed Wor. Bro. Smith in a most impressive manner and complimented the members of Moses Michael Hays Lodge on their excellent progress. It is significant to note that R.W. Arthur A. Sondheim would some twenty years later have the 33rd Degree conferred upon him — an honor which was well deserved and the announcement of which brought delight to his multitude of Masonic friends.
At his first meeting on January 2, 1936, Wor. Bro. Smith called attention to the establishment of our Relief Fund and pledges were accepted promptly in order to build a fund that would provide financial assistance to members of Moses Michael Hays Lodge, their widows and orphans. Wor. Bro. Joseph Brettler was elected an Honorary Member at this communication.
Wor. Bro. Smith, on a trip to New York City, met Lelia A. Myers and Adelia P. Myers, great-great-great granddaughters of Moses Michael Hays, who showed him the Masonic jewels and apron he wore when in office as Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts from 1788 to 1792. Fine salesman that he was, Wor. Bro. Smith induced these ladies to turn the mementos over to Moses Michael Hays Lodge with the assurance that they would be suitably framed and presented to the Grand Lodge for permanent display in its museum in Boston. This presentation took place at our fifth anniversary celebration held in the Grand Ballroom of the Copley Plaza Hotel, Boston, on January 7, 1937, where M. W. Claude L. Allen, Grand Master, accepted them on behalf of the Grand Lodge. These valuable mementos have been assigned a prominent place in the Grand Lodge museum and have been viewed by thousands of visitors.
That Wor. Bro. Smith had an eye for the future of our Lodge is attested by his suggestion and the Lodge's vote on December 3, 1936, that a sum of fifty dollars be set aside annually as a special fund for the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary.
To culminate a most progressive and productive term as Master, Wor. Bro. Smith announced at our communication held on October 7, 1937, that in collaboration with Wor. J. Hugo Tatsch, Acting Librarian and Curator of the Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts, he had written and published a book on the Life of Moses Michael Hays. Copies of this book were presented to the libraries of the Grand Lodges of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York, the Boston Public Library, the Boston Historical Society and to our members. At Wor. Bro. Smith's last meeting on November 4, 1937, we were honored by a fraternal visit of M .W. Claude L. Allen, Grand Master.
Thus ended the first six years of our Lodge's existence, which under the leadership of three able, experienced and dedicated Masters, placed it on a firm foundation to face the future with courage.
At our memorable sixty-first communication on December 2, 1937, Brother Joseph R. Rosen was installed as the fourth Master by M. W. James H. Price, Past Grand Master of Masons of Virginia and the then Governor-elect, who came to perform this delightful duty for his long-time friend. Significantly, Joe's installation marked the beginning of a new era, as he was the first line officer to occupy the East. Popularly known as the "man with a million friends," his administration was marked by many interesting meetings and events which included several exchange fraternal visits with Lodges in the Boston area, and a Father & Sons Sports' Night. Our meeting of October 6, 1938, was designated as M. W. Frederick W. Hamilton Night, at which nearly 300 Masons, in a spirit of love and respect came to join a large group of distinguished Masons in paying tribute to our own esteemed Honorary Member for his long and meritorious service to the Craft. Past Grand Masters Melvin M. Johnson, Arthur D. Prince and Claude L. Allen were present on this occasion.
On May 9, 1939, our Lodge paid tribute to the memory of M. W. Moses Michael Hays on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his birth, by a pilgrimage to his resting place in Newport, Rhode Island.
The lodge-room was filled to capacity on November 2, 1939, when we welcomed R. W. Albert A. Schaefer by designating this communication in his honor. Honorary Membership was conferred on Wor. Brother J. Hugo Tatsch.
During the same month, Moses Michael Hays Lodge joined with several other Lodges at Temple Israel, Boston, in a memorial and religious service commemorating the 150th anniversary of the first inauguration of Wor. George Washington as President of the United States, and to pay tribute to him as a Mason.
Brother Milton Garb was installed as the fifth Master on December 7, 1939. Our esteemed, efficient and kindly R.W. Arthur E. Fisk, because of ill-health, was unable to continue as Secretary after eight years of loyal and devoted service, and Wor. Joseph Brettler was elected Secretary at this communication.
Following the custom of his predecessors, Wor. Brother Garb planned several enjoyable and interesting meetings, among which was a Fraternal Visit with his Officers to Germania Lodge, where he was raised. Later, Wor. E. Louis Greenblatt and the Officers of Germania Lodge paid a return Fraternal Visit to Moses Michael Hays Lodge.
Our meeting of April 4, 1940, was designated as Past Masters' and Charter Members' Night. All stations were occupied by our Past Masters, Honorary and Charter Members, with R. W. T. Rutherford Edwards in the East. The charge was delivered by M. W. Herbert W. Dean, Past Grand Master.
As the clouds of war were hovering over the world, and our country began to strengthen its military and naval defenses, Wor. Bro. Garb, in his annual report of December 5, 1940, recommended, and the Lodge voted: "that any member who shall join the Armed Forces of the United States shall be exempt from the payment of Lodge Dues for the duration."
Wor. Bro. Garb's last meeting of his term on November 6, 1941, which also marked our 100th regular communication, was dedicated to R.W. Henry W. Stevens, our Marshal, for a decade of inspired and devoted service to our Lodge. M. W. Claude L. Allen, Past Grand Master, came to join us in honoring Brother Stevens who had served as his Grand Sword Bearer. Present also was our Grand Master, M.W. Albert A. Schaefer, who presented to Brother Stevens the Distinguished Service Medal of the Grand Lodge.
Brother Howard S. Gutlon was installed as the sixth Master on December 4, 1941, three days before the Pearl Harbor tragedy which engulfed our Country into World War II. Despite the many trying problems which faced this new administration, we proceeded to celebrate our tenth anniversary at the Copley Plaza Hotel on February 23, 1942. As our Brother and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was scheduled to address the Country by radio that evening, a recess was taken during the celebration to listen to this broadcast. Wor. Bro. Gutlon promptly prepared an Honor Roll of our 27 members and 28 sons and daughters of members serving in our Country's Armed Forces.
Two of our meetings were designated as Army Night and Navy Night, at both of which we entertained large contingents of Masonic Brethren in the Service.
An outstanding event was indeed our 120th communication on November 4, 1943, designated as Wor. Joseph Brettler Night, when a capacity attendance paid tribute to the twelve years of faithful service rendered by the Father of our Lodge.
The members of Moses Michael Hays Lodge were elated at the announcement that at the Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge in December 1942 our genial Marshal, R.W. Henry W. Stevens, was elected Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge, bringing much glory to our Lodge.
To accommodate many of our members who desired to propose their sons and relatives into our Lodge prior to their induction into the Armed Forces, our By-Laws were amended to enable us to work on five candidates at a time.
Wor. Bro. Gutlon's term through two trying years was characterized by energetic planning of interesting meetings which gained for him the approbation of his members.
Bro. Ralph J. Cohen assumed the East as our seventh Master during the most difficult days of the war. Recognized and respected as an authority on Masonic Ritual, and faced with the loss of several of our line officers to the Armed Forces, he nevertheless carried on his meetings with the dignity and precision established by his predecessors. The Lodge will ever appreciate the emergency service rendered by our Past Masters and members in occupying vacant stations.
Our Grand Lodge had created the Masonic Military Service Fund for the purpose of establishing Centers in this Country and abroad to assist our Masonic Brethren in these areas. Under the direction of Wor. Bro. Cohen, who was assisted by an able committee, the members of Moses Michael Hays Lodge made the second largest per capita contribution to this fund in the entire jurisdiction, being exceeded only by one small Lodge with a membership of thirty-two. We were truly proud to receive the commendation of the Most Worshipful Grand Master for our members' generosity. We also created our own War Emergency Fund, which under the able direction of Bro. Sidney R. Jackson and his efficient Service Committee, provided periodic shipments of goodies to all our members in the Service.
The Lodge was shocked to hear of the passing of our Senior Steward, Bro. Jacob Levinson, after a prolonged illness. Our officers and members established the Jacob Levinson Memorial Fund in his memory, which to this day provides aid to needy children, an activity dear to the heart of our late Brother.
Because of the pressure of personal business, and knowing that our Lodge was firmly established, Wor. Bro. Brettler asked to be relieved as Secretary, and Wor. Bro. Harry Smith was elected to this office.
At our 139th communication on September 4, 1945, rejoicing was in order as the Armed Forces of the United Nations had been triumphant in the World conflict. Concurring with the request of M. W. Harry S. Truman, President of the United States, a prayer of thanksgiving was offered. Later in the month, a large number of our officers and members viewed with pride the installation of another Charter Member, Bro. Louis Hamburger, as Master of Shawmut Lodge.
We reached another milestone in our Lodge's history with the installation of Bro. Leo Stiglitz as our eighth Master on December 4, 1945. Brother Stiglitz was the first member raised in Moses Michael Hays Lodge to attain the East. Reflecting his good training as a line officer, he carried on the various Lodge activities with precision and to the pleasure of our members. With his keen sense of finances, he induced our members to generous donations to our Relief and other funds as is evidenced by the fact that during his term in office our financial assets were more than doubled. To further our charitable activities in and out of our Lodge, the Leon Rosenthal Memorial Fund was created by many friends of our late esteemed Brother to assist a variety of needy causes.
The Lodge suffered a great loss in the passing of R.W. Arthur E. Fisk, who had served as our first Secretary, and whose kindly personality will always be remembered by those who knew him.
During Bro. Stiglitz's administration, we celebrated our fifteenth anniversary on February 3, 1947, with a gala Ladies' Night at the Hotel Statler. More than 500 members, ladies and guests enjoyed a fine program.
Having survived the growing pains of our early years and the trials and exigencies of a great war, Bro. Albert M. Krensky was installed as the ninth Master in an atmosphere of enthusiasm and exhilaration. To cement more closely the friendships among our Brethren, Bro. Krensky scheduled an interesting variety of meetings by dedicating a "Night" in honor of each Past Master, and arranging for excellent speakers at our dinners. Our formal Ladies' Night and our first Family Dinner Party were other highlights of his administration. The excellent portrayal of our degree work by our officers continued to attract large turnouts of members and visitors to our meetings.
A wide and varied experience in fraternal organization was brought to the East of our Lodge with the installation of Bro. Clarence Yanofsky as our tenth Master. Like his predecessors, he conducted the affairs of our Lodge with propriety, and through his vast acquaintance in professional, educational and public life, we were visited and entertained by noted and prominent Masons.
During his administration, Moses Michael Hays Lodge was signally honored when our own Wor. Ralph J. Cohen was appointed District Deputy Grand Master of the Boston Second Masonic District by M. W. Roger Keith, Grand Master. His first Official Visitation to our Lodge on November 7, 1950, will remain an outstanding event in our Lodge's history.
The succeeding years were bountiful in activity and friendship among our Brethren, with emphasis always on our primary endeavors to promote the basic principles of Freemasonry.
Our eleventh Master, Bro. Samuel Winetsky, assumed his office with zeal, and with the abundance of candidates knocking at our portals, our officers were kept very busy working two degrees at nearly every communication. These were interspersed, however, with fine socials at our dinners and with a delightful Ladies' Night at the Pine Brook Country Club. Due to the pressure of personal business, Wor. Bro. Winetsky advised that he would not be available for a second term. This precedent of one-year terms has been followed by his successors.
Bro. Mitchell M. Rosser, our twelfth Master, carried on in the efficient tradition of his predecessors. In the midst of our pleasant activities, we were shocked at the passing of Wor. Joseph Brettler, the second Master and Father of Moses Michael Hays Lodge, on May 20, 1953. Wor. Bro. Brettler left an excellent record of accomplishment in Masonry, and his fidelity to the Craft will long be remembered.
During Wor. Bro. Rosser's term, Moses Michael Hays Lodge in co-operation with the other Lodges in the Boston Second Masonic District, attended a Spiritual Service at Temple Emeth in South Brookline on November 13, 1953, at which M. W. and Rev. Thomas S. Roy, Grand Master, delivered the sermon.
Our Lodge was saddened for the second time in one year at the news of the sudden passing of Wor. Clarence Yanofsky on November 27, 1953. His resourcefulness and friendly nature will always be remembered in and beyond the bounds of our Lodge.
The dignified and exacting administration of our thirteenth Master, Wor. Maurice Levin, will always be a high light in our history. He provided effective impetus to our Blood Bank Drive with his Red Carnation Brigade, and promptly attended to every demand for blood as well as the other needs of our Brethren. It became his unpleasant task to preside over two Lodges of Sorrow at the passing of our two distinguished Brethren, Wor. Mitchell M. Rosser on January 24, 1954, and R.W. T. Rutherford Edwards, our first Master, on August 9, 1954. The pain of such a striking loss to our Lodge can only be ameliorated by the memory of the priceless contributions in friendship and service which they rendered.
The genial and striking personality of our fourteenth Master, Wor. Charles T. Copeland, won for him the respect and obedience of his officers and members as he conducted the affairs of our Lodge. He created our Blood Donor Honor Roll and provided us with an entertaining Ladies' Night and Family Party.
Youth and Drive came to the East of our Lodge with the installation of Bro. Jack A. Winetsky as the fifteenth Master. His dedication and devotion to Moses Michael Hays Lodge were evident as he occupied the various stations as a line officer. His meetings were highlighted by a visit of the Aleppo Temple Shrine Degree Team and by our Pharmacists' Blue Lodge Night on June 5, 1956, when a candidate was raised in long form by a group of pharmacists, all members of Moses Michael Hays Lodge, but without previous officer experience except for our own Wor. Milton Garb, who presided in the East.
Bro. Maurice Verdun was installed as our sixteenth Master as we proceed to celebrate our Silver Anniversary. His friendliness and sobriety should lead our Lodge to greater accomplishment and usefulness to our Craft.
Upsetting indeed was the regretful passing of our third Master, Wor. Harry Smith, on January 27, 1957, to whom our twenty-fifth anniversary meant so much. His devoted service to us as Master and Secretary will long be remembered and we shall miss him.
We are proud of the men who have guided our Lodge to maturity during the past quarter century. We are equally proud of the calibre of men who sought entrance to Freemasonry through Moses Michael Hays Lodge.
Our present membership totals 490, and we look upon every one of them as a credit to our Masonic endeavors. Their continued ethical participation in the business, educational, charitable and public activities of our communities will reflect tribute to our Lodge.
In reviewing our accomplishments during the past twenty-five years, our thoughts reflect with reverence on the memory of forty-four of our Brethren who have been called to labor on a Higher Sphere. The influence of their contributions to Masonry should direct us to greater attainments in the days that lie ahead. We have recorded in writing some of the high lights of our history. However, the countless acts of kindness, charity and devotion exemplified by so many of our members throughout the years, much of it unheralded and unsung, will be recorded always in our hearts.
50TH ANNIVERSARY HISTORY, MAY 1982
1957 - 1982; by R.W. Harold J. Kaswell
For a comprehensive history of Moses Michael Hays Lodge covering the earlier period, please refer to 1957 Mass. 3-17.
"When men of good will, possessed of a true Masonic spirit, join their hearts and minds in one common purpose, their labors reflect the true image of our Creator."
These powerful and meaningful words were written by Worshipful E. Louis Greenblatt, of Blessed Memory, and began the opening paragraph of the History of Moses Michael Hays todge on the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary year. We think it fitting and proper, therefore, on the occasion of this, our Fiftieth Anniversary, to dedicate this episode in our lodge's young Masonic career to Worshipful Brother Lou's Memory.
Elsewhere in this the Fiftieth Anniversary brochure, at the kind suggestion of our Grand Secretary, Right Worshipful Robert P. Beach, we are including Worshipful Greenblatt's complete and unabridged history of this new fledgling Lodge, then twenty-five years young. It is interesting to note that in our Grand Lodge proceedings of [1957, the histories of six lodges, ours included, are published. Of the other five, Pentucket Lodge of Lowell celebrated its one hundred fiftieth anniversary, John Abbot Lodge of Somerville, Berkshire Lodge of Adams, Mount Vernon Lodge of Malden and Pequossette Lodge of Watertown, all celebrated their one-hundredth anniversary. Our entrance into the realm of anniversary celebrations is just beginning.
The history of our second twenty-five years becomes all the more interesting, especially to this writer, because my own Masonic career began during the administration of our fourteenth Master, Worshipful Charles Copeland. Both Worshipful Jack A. Winetsky and Worshipful Maurice Verdun, the fifteenth and sixteenth Masters respectively, completed that twenty five year period so eloquently portrayed in words by Worshipful E. Louis Greenblatt.
The English poet and philosopher, Lord Bryce, stated many years ago: Every thing which as power to win the obedience and respect of men must have its roots in the past, and that the more slowly every institution has grown, so much the more enduring it is likely to prove. And yet, on the other hand, one of our public personalities once made the statement that: Nothing is more permanent than change. A compromise or balance between these two ideas can, we believe, be found not only in the history of Moses Michael Hays Lodge but in the history of all our Lodges, and of all of Freemasonry as well.
While our first twenty-five years saw the installation of only sixteen Worshipful Masters, in 1951 Worshipful Samuel Winetsky began a one year term, where previously each officer served in each station for two years. The practice of only one year in each station has continued to the present day, and our second twenty-five year period includes the installation of twenty-three Masters (two having returned for a second separate term), their Wardens and other officers, elected and appointed.
Worshipful Philip Tasker was elected and installed our 17th Master in 1957 for our 1958 year, and extended an invitation to this writer to become his Inside Sentinel, launching a career that brought about this invitation to present the history of our second twenty-five years.
We think it fitting and proper at this point, to once again mention an event in the life of Moses Michael Hays Lodge which was included in our first twenty-five years, but which will ever be appropriate in any of this illustrious Masonic Lodge's recorded history.
ln 1937, a book on the life of Moses Michael Hays was written and published. It was co-authored by Worshipful J. Hugo Tatsch, then acting Librarian and Curator of our Grand Lodge and Worshipful Harry Smith, then presiding Master of Moses Michael Hays Lodge. This book, Moses Michael Hays; Merchant, Citizen, Freemason is recommended reading for every member of the Craft, but particularly for members of our Lodge.
Perhaps the closing paragraph of Worshipful Smith's forword best states, with great pride, our Masonic heritage and our dedication to those Masonic principles. Worshipful Smith stated:
"It is earnestly hoped that this book will inspire the members of Moses Michael Hays Lodge to make our fellowship a loving expression of the worthy citizen, patriot and Freemason whose name it bears, and thus do their part in preserving unsullied the reputation which he attained through to practical application of Masonic tenents in every day life. Quiet, unassuming, tolerant and charitable, Moses Michael Hays left his mark on the communities in which he lived. His name is blessed among those who know of his gentle worth and his sterling character."
A recounting of some of the events of each year beginning with Worshipful Philip Tasker's administration will trace in some manner the growth of our lodge and which we hope will be interesting and enlightening to all.
From the 490 members on our rolls at the end of our 25th year, our roster now shows a membership of 508. It is interesting to trace the growth and development, the rise and fall of our membership, but our success cannot only be measured in numbers. It was Ralph Waldo Emerson who wrote: "The true test of civilization is not the census, nor the size of the cities, nor the crops - but the kind of men it turns out." And so it is with Moses Michael Hays Lodge and all of Freemasonry.
During this second twenty-five year period we initiated, crafted, raised and admitted 205 members, and also, 215 of our brethren have been admitted and duly installed in the celestial Lodge above. Our twentieth Master, Worshipful Nathan Sepinuck presided in the East in 1961 when twenty-five new brethren signed our by-laws. Worshipful Jack Winetsky in 1956, Worshipful Maurice Verdun in 1957, and Worshipful Philip Tasker in 1958 were close behind in numbers of new members and in Lodge activity in their respective years.
During the years just mentioned, and in fact in all of our years, all officers' chairs were filled by sincere and dedicated Masons, each of us learning our lessons well and presenting to our brethren well prepared programs. We "set the craft at work and gave them necessary instruction." But it was not all work and no play. Our ladies'nights, our other social events and programs of good fellowship, our acts of charity, were always and in all ways presented to the satisfaction and the enjoyment of our membership.
Wor. Robert Jaffe assumed the East in 1959 in what proved to be a most interesting and active year both in numbers of candidates and in happy social events followed by Worshipful Edward Cohen in 1960, perhaps one of our best and most eloquent ritualists and teacher for our candidates and for our young officers.
Our twenty-first Master, Worshipful Bencion Moskow provided the leadership of our Lodge in 1962 followed by Worshipful Ralph Levine in 1963 and Worshipful Sidney M. Liner in 1964. We note with regret, that Brother Liner did not live to be here with us for our 50th. He passed away on June 25, 1974. But we do record the fact that in this twenty-five year period, only Worshipful Jack Winetsky, Worshipful Sidney M. Liner and Worshipful Peter Amershadian, do not answer to our roll calls today. All other past Masters are with us and so many of them are still able to be of service to our lodge programs and to our young line ol officers.
With an eloquent and moving installation of officers ceremony, performed by Worshipful Maurice B. lrvin, this writer was duly installed as the twenty-fourth Master in 1965. He was followed by worshipful J. I. W. Moskow in 1966 and Worshipful Mitchell E. Phillips in 1967. Worshipful Kaswell served as District Deputy Grand Secretary in 1966 and 1967 under R. W. Irving Bornstein, District Deputy Grand Master for the Boston Second Masonic District. Worshipful Phillips served as District Deputy Grand Secretary in 1970 and 1971. Our 27th Master, Worshipful Theodore Jaffe, brother of Worshipful Robert Jaffe (1959) served in the East in 1968. It is worthy of note that these two Jaffe brothers are the sons of our late Brother Charles J. Jaffe who was our first Chaplain and a Charter Member of Moses Michael Hays lodge in 1931.
On the evening of Tuesday, May 7, 1968, a most unusual Masonic program took place under the capable direction of worshipful Theodore Jaffe. It included a visit from one of our illustrious past Grand Master, Most Worshipful Whitfield W. Johnson, who was for that evening officially representing the then Presiding Grand Master, Most Worshipful Thomas A. Booth. The occasion of this visit was to fraternally greet and spend a truly Masonic evening with a large and most distinguished group of Masonic personalities who travelled great distances to be with us.
In 1969 we installed worshipful Frederick H. Goldstein who was then followed by Worshipful Joseph Ganz in 1970 as our 29th Master. "Freemasonry unites men of every country, sect and opinion." In this case, it also happily provided opportunities for family fellowship as well.
In 1970, Most Worshipful Herbert H. Jaynes, then Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts saw fit to appoint and to install this writer as District Deputy Grand Master for the Boston Second Masonic District. This appointment represents an important event in the history of our lodge, an event which we look back upon with great pride and pleasure. During this two year_term, both Worshipful Joseph Ganz and his worthy successor, Worshipful Charles W. Weinfeld served as our 29th and 30th Masters. Worshipful Weinfeld is today our Treasurer, a dedicated and competent Past Master, another pillar of strength along with our Secretary, Worshipful Robert O. Rittenberg, about whom more will be mentioned later.
Worshipful James Epstein became our 31st Master and later on was to become our 39th Master in 1980. Worshipful Jim also served as Treasurer in 1978 and has been and is one of our dedicated and devoted Past Masters.
1973 saw the beginning of plans which eventually led to the relocation of Moses Michael Hays Lodge in our present home in Needham, Massachusetts. It was in 1974, during the Masonic year of Worshipful Donald L. Hoffman that the move to Needham was finally completed. For many of us, the parting with our Grand Lodge Temple home, with its antiquity and its pleasant memories, was not a happy occasion. But looking forward, our junior officers and our younger members find much in Needham to inspire new Masonic programs and new Masonic activities.
In Worshipful Kaplan's administration, a "Night of Tiibute" was held for our own Worshipful Charles W. Weinfeld who contributed so much to the Twenty-fifth anniversary Celebration of the founding of the State of Israel. This gala affair was held at the Statler Hilton Hotel in Boston on the night of October 13, 1973, at which time a most distinguished group of his friends, both Masonic and non-Masonic were present to do him honor. 1973 also included a member of other incidents which are worthy of note as we tell the story of Moses Michael Hays Lodge in its second twenty-five years. ln July, our beloved Tieasurer, Worshipful E. Louis Greenblatt, Past Master of Germania Lodge and Charter Member of Moses Michael Hays Lodge, one of our founding fathers, was called to our celestial Lodge above. His passing was a tragic event in the lives of so many of us who knew him well. A special memorial service was held at our regular meeting on Tuesday, March 11, 1975 during which time a portrait of Worshipful Brother Lou was unvelied in our Masonic apartments. The inscription beneath this portrait reads: Worshipful E Louis Greenblatt, 1901-1973. The simplicity of his life, the depth of his philosophy and the strength of his fellowship, made this a gentler wiser and kinder world. His memory lives as a perpetual light to all his Brethren. Moses Michael Hays Lodge, March 1975.
It was during this year that Right Worshipful Aaron R. Davison, Past Master of Mount Scopus Lodge, was elected as an affiliated Past Master, bringing to our Lodge a set of Masonic values seldom equalled in Masonic tradition. Right Worshipful Brother Aaron, Past District Deputy Grand Master for the Malden 7th Masonic District, extremely active in Scottish Rite Masonry, recipient of the Joseph Warren Medal for Distinguished Service and recently elected to that coveted position of 33rd Degree Mason, is now our close friend and brother.
Worshipful David H. Jacobs and Worshipful Marshall I. Karp, our auditor, carried on our traditions in our new home in 1975 and 1976 as our 34th and 35th Worshipful Masters, respectively.
At this point, we are proud to set down for the record that our son, Norman J. Kaswell was duly installed as our 36th Worshipful Master in 1977. One cannot easily describe the thrill and the honor of performing the rites of installation of Brother Norman and all the other officers on that memorable occasion.
Worshipful Harry L. Ginesky, our present director of our Masonic Blood Donor Program, became our 37th Master in 1978 and was responsible along with his dedicated slate of officers, for a busy and interesting year. One of his interesting and happy activities which extended over a number of years was his annual program for our children and grandchildren to celebrate our season holidays. Worshipful Harry is and has been everyone's favorite friend and brother.
A memorable and highly significant event in the life of our lodge took place on June 27, 1978. Most Worshipful Arthur H. Melanson, then presiding Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts, together with a most distinguished group of Grand Lodge Officers, visited Moses Michael Hays Lodge in Needham. This was a special communication for the purpose of uniting Moses Michael Hays Lodge and Putnam Lodge of Cambridge. Through the combined efforts of Worshipful Frank Rudzinsky, then Presiding Master of Putnam Lodge together with Worshipful Gilbert A. Kaplan, then Secretary and Past Master of Putnam Lodge and a committee of presiding officers and Past Masters of Moses Michael Hays Lodge plans were made for the development of this merger of both our lodges.
As we continue to record the events in our Lodge's colorful history, once again Worshipful Norman J. Kaswell (Master in 1977) assumed the East in 1979, the first time a Master presided in two separate non-successive years. He was then followed by Worshipful James Epstein in 1980 who had also served as Master in 1972. Both of these now fully experienced Masters carried out their duties and responsibilities in keeping with the high tradition of our Lodge for service to our brethren and full dedication to the Craft.
Our presiding Master in 1981, the year that completed our fiftieth year, was Worshipful Jason Orlov, a Past Master of Aberdour Lodge and one of our most active and energetic affiliated Past Masters. His efforts in bringing this memorable period to a close and preparing the way for his successor, Worshipful Ronald A. Koven are greatly appreciated and admired by those of us who had the opportunity to work closely with him.
Worshipful Ronald Koven was installed our 41st Master on December 12, 1981 successfully beginning our next twenty-five years. His sincere and dedicated efforts in the planning and the completion of our fiftieth anniversary celebration deserve the commendation of all our brethren.
An attempt is hereby made to include in the records a number of changes in the two important elected positions, those of our Secretary and our Treasurer during these years when we unhappily lost both our Secretary and our Treasurer. Brother Sidney R. Jackson, our Secretary, passed away in March of 1969 at which time Worshipful Harold J. Kaswell became our acting Secretary, and in 1970 was duly elected to continue in that important position. In 1971, as our Junior Past Master, Worshipful Joseph Ganz became our Secretary and served well until our present Secretary, Worshipful Robert O. Rittenberg, assumed that desk in 1974. Worshipful Rittenberg, an affiliated Past Master from Hyde Park Lodge, has just completed a two year term as District Deputy Grand Secretary under Right Worshipful Robert L. Pann, District Deputy Grand Master of our Boston Second Masonic District. No more devoted or efficient or knowledgeable Masonic Secretary could ever be found in our ranks or in the ranks of all Masonry in this jurisdiction.
Upon the passing of our Tieasurer, Worshipful E. Louis Greenblatt, Right Worshipful Harold J. Kaswell assumed the position of Treasurer until Worshipful Marshall Karp, our auditor, was elected Treasurer in 1977. Worshipful James Epstein was eiected Treasurer in 1978, after which Worshipful Charles Weinfeld was elected and is today our present dedicated, efficient and hard working keeper of "Stock and other Properties of the Lodge."
It is important that we note here and now that joining with Right Worshipful Aaron R. Davison as an affiliated Past District Deputy, we proudly welcomed Right Worshipful Raynard Braverman, Past Master of Hyde Park Lodge, and District Deputy Grand Master of Hyde Park 25th Masonic District as an affiliate. Past District Deputy. We also include in our ranks: Worshipful Arthur Katz of Aberdour Lodge, Worshipful Robert Bloomenthal of Isaac Parker Lodge and of course, Worshipful Jason S. Orlov recently mentioned.
While it is true that many of the events and incidents in the life of Moses Michael Hays todge during our second twenty-five years are mentioned around and in conjunction with our Worshipful Masters, we cannot let this opportunity pass without including in these presents some of the important, active and dedicated Master Masons who coniributed so much to the strength and to the activities of our Lodge, activities which continue from year to year.
As Worshipful Masters come and go, the work of members such as Brother Simon Koopman, who with Brother Milton Berger and Brother David Sherter contributed so much and still contribute so much to what was initially called our "Happy Day Fund." This warm and friendly activity which started early in our Lodge's history, is now known as the E. Louis Greenblatt Happy Day Fund, and Brother Koopman has for all these years, dedicated his efforts in so many ways to help keep this important activity vibrant and meaningful.
For many years, Brother Maurice "Clancy" Silverstein has devoted his energies and his talents to the growth and strength of our Masonic Blood Donor Program. It is not possibli to set down here sufficient tribute to him for his years of effort in this important Lodge function. Upon his retirement from this program, his work was taken over by Worshipful Harry Ginesky, another of our active and dedicated Past Masters. We must also mention devoted members such as Brother Tlerman Aborn' our electrician (for many years with the able assistance of Brother Isadore Beresen), Brother Gilbert S. Burr, our Marshal and legal advisor, Brother Leonard Epstein, who like so many other dedicated Masons, is always there when the Master needs him.
At the beginning of our second twenty-five year period, our Tyler was Brother Samuel D. Basch, our very first Tyler and Charter Member. Brother Basch is no longer with us. He was succeeded by Brother Maurice Koopman and them followed by Brother Lewis Park, three most necessary and dedicated members of our Lodge, who each in his own way, contributed so much to our "history".
Dedicated families are always so important and we must mention at least two of them at this point. We proudly name Brother Cyrus Jacobs and family, and how could we not include Brother Max Epstein and family? These are but two of the many family groups that add so much to the strength and the colorful history of our fraternity.
No history, either in our first 25 years or in our second, could be complete without a warm and fond word for Worshipful Maurice B. Leven, Past Master. His dedication and devotion to our Iodge and to our Craft can never be adequately set down in these few words.
It is also extremely important that we record the names of the following brethren who were singularly honored by being awarded perhaps one of the most coveted honors in Massachusetts Masonry, the Joseph warren Medal for Distinguished service. These Masons are Right worshipful Brothers Aaron R. Davison and Harold J. Kaswell and Worshipful Gilbert A. Kaplan. We must add to this list Worshipful E. Louis Greenblatt who received this award in 1965.
The continuity of our Lodge is assured! We record here that our present Inside Sentinel, Brother Gerald Burg is a third generation member of our Lodge. His father is Harold A. Burg, and his Grandfather was Morris Burg, a Charter Member. Our present Senior Steward, Brother Robert A. Coval is also a third generation member. His father, Brother Donald S. Coval, and his grandfather, Br. Julius W. Cohen, were members of long standing in the history of this branch of our fraternity.
No words, no time or space can ever properly record the many deeds of dedication and service performed by our officers, both elected and appointed, and by our members. Their acts of kindness and brotherhood will always be a part of the memories of all of us who were and are fortunate enough to be in the mainstream of Masonic thought and activity.
We close this document with the full knowledge that twenty-five years hence, and fifty years and more other chapters will be added. The Spirit of Freemasonry continues, acknowledging the universal Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man. This honored fraternity of ours perpetually erects a Temple of Humanity. As stated in the Grand Lodge of Bulletin of the State of Iowa issued in March, 1926, "within its protecting walls, all mankind may find shelter, warmth and spiritual sustenance. For such is the work of the craft; always will they be found building ... building ... building."
- 1974 (Petition to remove to Needham, 1974-178)
WREATH LAYING, AUGUST 1936
From New England Craftsman, Vol. XXXI, No. 12, August 1936, Page 236:
A visit was made Sunday. August 23, by Harry Smith, Master of Moses Michael Hays Lodge. A. F. & A. M.. of Boston, to the grave of Most Worshipful Moses Michael Hays, at Newport. R. I.
A wreath was placed on the grave of Bro. Hays, 33d degree Mason, and Gcand Master of Masons in Massachusetts from 1788 to 1792. Moses Michael Hays was an early contributor to Harvard College, and his name appears on the original charter of the Union Bank of Boston. This charter is the one on which the present First National Bank of Boston is operating.
The cemetery where Moses Michael Hays is buried is the oldest Jewish cemetery in America. Here also is buried Hays' nephew, Judah Touro, who gave $10,000 toward erection of the Bunker Hill Monument.
Moses Michael Hays Lodge. A. F. & A. M.. was instituted in Boston, Massachusetts, in December, 1931.
GRAND LODGE OFFICERS
- Raynard Braverman, DDGM, District 25 (Hyde Park), 1981, 1982; SN
- Donald M. Chambers, DDGM, District 25 (Hyde Park), 1987, 1988' N
- Ralph J. Cohen, DDGM, District 2 (Boston), 1950, 1951; N
- Aaron R. Davison, DDGM, District 7 (Malden), 1961, 1962; N
- Harold J. Kaswell, DDGM, District 2 (Boston), 1970, 1971; N
- Al Rose, DDGM, District 24 (Marlboro), 1984, 1985; Junior Grand Warden 1988
- Robert J. Seder, DDGM, District 5 (Waltham), 1975, 1976; SN
- Stanley G. Winer, DDGM, District 2 (Boston), 1990, 1991; SN