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On December 9, 1799, Samuel Dunn was elected Grand Master. Dunn was born in Providence, R. I., on July 19, 1747 and was thus fifty-two years old when elected Grand Master. His father and grand father, both also named Samuel Dunn, were likewise born in Providence. His father was a sea captain. The son, our Samuel, followed the sea in his early years, and became a successful shipmaster until 1785. In October, 1799, he married a daughter of John Cutler. His own success in business, coupled with the Cutler connections, made him a prominent figure in Boston.circles. He was an Assessor of the town of Boston in 1801, 1802, and 1803 and represented it in the state legislature in 1811, 1812 and 1813. For some reason not now known Dunn did not appear in Grand Lodge after December 10, 1810. Possibly he considered his membership of the legislature incompatible with Masonic activity. He was active in the affairs of Trinity Church. He died November 28, 1815. His portrait shows him as a large but not corpulent man, with the strong but kindly face of one accustomed to leadership and command.

He became a member of St. John's Lodge in 1780. He was its Master in 1783 and 1784, 1787, and 1791 to 1794, and possibly at other times, as the records of St. John's Lodge for this period are not quite complete. He was elected Junior Grand Warden in the St. John's Grand Lodge July 29, 1790. He was later elected Senior Grand Warden, but resigned March 2, 1792. He was active in promoting the union of the two Grand Lodges in 1792, and was one of the electors chosen to represent the St. John's Grand Lodge. His colleagues nominated him for Junior Grand Warden in the United Grand Lodge, but he gave place to Mungo Mackey. Paul Revere appointed him Deputy Grand Master for the last year of his administration and he served in that capacity during the two years of Bartlett's term.

On December 14, 1799, five days after Dunn's election, George Washington died. Dunn was installed December 17, 1799, before the news reached Boston. His first official duty was to deal with the matter of funeral observances. On January 8 he called a Special Communication to take the sense of the Brethren whether they would take a place in the funeral procession proposed by the citizens of the town. Grand Lodge voted not to do so, thus reaffirming the Masonic principle that Masonic bodies, as such, take part only in Masonic processions and observances. Grand Lodge then voted that it would form a public funeral procession on February 11, would invite all the Lodges in the Jurisdiction to participate and would extend the invitation to St. Andrew's Lodge. St. Andrew's Lodge voted unanimously to accept the invitation. The date was chosen because February 11 was then regarded as Washington's birthday, that being the Old Style date at the time of his birth. It was further voted that John Warren, Paul Revere, and Josiah Bartlett be a committee to write to Mrs. Washington a letter of condolence and"to request of her a lock of her deceased husband's hair, to be preserved in a Golden Urn." The hair was received in due time. Paul Revere made the urn which, with its precious contents is a priceless possession of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts to this day. A part of the installation of each new Grand Master is the formal entrusting to him of the urn and its contents.

It was also voted that the same committee prepare a letter of condolence to be sent to the several Grand Lodges of the United States. Grand Lodge emphasized by every means in its power that its refusal to join the citizens' procession implied no disrespect toward Washington.

The Masonic funeral ceremonies were so elaborate that the official record is here inserted in full.

Funeral Obsequies,
of the Illustrious Brother George Washington, as solemnized by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 11th February, 5800.

Agreeably to previous notice, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts this day performed Masonic Funeral Services in honor of the Illustrious deceased Brother, George Washington. The tolling of the bells at 8 o'clock commenced the Ceremonies. At 11 o*clock a grand procession, composed of upwards of sixteen hundred Brethren, was formed at the Old State House and moved from thence to the following order:

  • Two Grand Pursuivants
    • clad in sable robes and weeds, mounted on elegant white horses properly caparisoned, bearing an elliptical mourning arch (14 feet in the clear) with the sacred text in silver characters: "Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord for they do rest from their labors."
    • The Pursuivants were supported by two Continental veterans in uniform, with their badges of merit.
  • A Deputy Marshal, nine stewards of Lodges, with wands suitably shrouded.
  • Two Tylers.
  • Entered Apprentices of all Lodges.
  • Fellow Crafts.
  • Master Masons.
  • A Deputy Marshal.
  • Stewards of Lodges, with Mourning Staves.
  • Deacons of Lodges with Mourning Wands.
  • Secretaries and Treasurers.
  • Junior and Past Junior Wardens.
  • Past Masters.
  • The Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, as Past Masters.
  • Masters of Lodges.
  • An Elderly Mason,
    • bearing an elegant figure of Minerva on a banner, Emblem, Wisdom.
  • Three times three Sons of Masons about 11 years of age,
    • bearing sprigs of cassia, the centre supporting the banner of Strength.
  • A Mason's son,
    • bearing a banner emblematical of Beauty.
  • Nine daughters of Masons,
    • each bearing a basket of flowers.
  • N.B. The sons and daughters were clad in funeral uniforms.
  • A Deputy Marshal.
  • A Full Band of Music.
  • The Masters of the three eldest Lodges,
    • bearing three candlesticks with candles, the right one extinguished.
  • The Reverend Clergy of the Fraternity.
  • A Master Mason,
    • bearing a black cushion with the Holy Writings and a Grand Master's Jewel.
  • Eight Relieving Tylers.
  • Pall Supporters.
  • R.W. Bro. Wm, Scollay } { R.W. Perez Morton
  • R.W. Bro. J. Bartlett } The Urn { R.W. Paul Revere
  • R.W. Bro. Jno. Cutler } { R.W. Jno Warren
  • The Funeral Insignia.
  • A pedestal covered with a Pall, the escutcheon of which were characteristic drawings, on satin, of Faith, Hope and Charity.
    • The pedestal, beside the Urn, which was upwards of three feet in length, and which contained a relic of the Illustrious deceased, bore also a representation of the Genius of Masonry, weeping on the Urn, and other suitable emblems. The whole [was] of white marble composition. On the Urn was this inscription:
      • "Sacred to the Memory of Brother George Washington, raised to the All-perfect Lodge the 14th Dec, 5799."
      • "Ripe in years and full of Glory."
  • A Charger, properly and superbly caparison'd, led by two Brethren.
  • Grand Marshal.
  • The Most Worshipful Sam'l Dunn, Grand Master,
    • as Chief Mourner, attended by the Grand Deaoons and G. Sw'd Bearer.
  • The Deputy Grand Master.
  • Grand Wardens. Grand Chaplain and Orator.
  • Past Grand Officers. Grand Treasurer and Grand Secretary.
  • Three Grand Stewards,
    • bearing an Arch with this inscription: "And their works, they do follow them,"

The Grand Master, Pall Bearers and Grand Officers were dressed in full mourning with white scarfs and weeds. Each Brother bore a sprig of cassia and every one wore an appropriate badge of mourning.

In this order the procession moved through several of the principal streets in town to the Old South Meeting House, where the solemnities {were begun} by an appropriate, fervent and judicious prayer by the Rev. Dr. Eckley. To this succeeded two odes, written by the Rev. Bro. Harris and sung by Bro. Dr. Fay and a choir of Brethren. An eulogy illustrative of the life, character, virtues and services of the glorious deceased was then deliver'd by the Hono'ble Bro. Timothy Bigelow, of Groton, which did justice to the subject and honor to the speaker. It contained a blaze of chaste portraits of the Illustrious Washington, drawn as a warrior, a statesman, a citizen, a Christian and a Mason and adorn'd with suitable improvements for direction.

The Grand Chaplain then pronounced a benediction and the solemnities of the hour were finished by a Masonic dirge, by the Rev. T. M. Harris, sung by Bro, Eaton and the choir. From the Old South the procession then moved to the Stone Chapel, where an appropriate funeral service was performed by the Rev. Bro. Bentley, Grand Chaplain, assisted by the Rev. Bro. Dr. Walker.

The flowers were then and the cassia deposited.

The Brethren then returned to the State House, unclothed and separated."

There was also a very elaborate ceremony at Oxford on February 15, the Masonic bodies being escorted by a large force of soldiers.

It will be remembered that when the Grand Lodge passed the resolution outlawing Lodges not in the obedience of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, a resolution intended to assert as strongly as possible the new principle of the territorial sovereignty of Grand Lodges, an attempt was promptly made to have a supplementary resolution passed excepting St. Andrew's from the rule. Grand Lodge apparently did not quite dare to tackle the question. To exempt St. Andrew's would weaken the force of a very important action. To refuse formally would be an offense to St. Andrew's, which the Grand Lodge had no desire to inflict. The question was continued by postponement from Quarterly to Quarterly and was never acted upon. On December 9, 1799, at the meeting at which Dunn was elected Grand Master, Grand Lodge voted to appoint a committee to confer with St. Andrew's on the propriety of their acknowledging the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, "a measure which we think at this particular time, highly essential to the fair reputation of the Mason's character in the opinion of our country." This is a clear echo of the hostile criticism which had been directed against the Fraternity. As we have just seen, there was a further tender of the olive branch on the death of Washington.

We are always to remember the personal, business, and social relations which all along existed between St. John's and the St. Andrew's. Undoubtedly the most important discussions and conferences were entirely unofficial and we see only the results in the records. Indeed St, Andrew's itself was seriously considering the question of a change of allegiance. As early as June 1798 a letter was sent to the Grand Lodge of Scotland raising the question of such a change. The answer of the Grand Lodge of Scotland was dated May 21, 1799, but was not received until December 19. By that time the overture, from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts was before St. Andrew's. The letter from Scotland was kindly, diplomatic, and non-committal. Scotland acknowledged the relation with its child, but refrains from direct advice as to what St. Andrew's should do. The Grand Secretary, however did say "that inasmuch as the Massachusetts Grand Lodge has not been recognized by either of the Grand Lodges of Great Britain, St. Andrew's is not bound to consider them as entitled to the character of a Grand Body."

St, Andrew's was divided as to what course to pursue, but finally a letter was sent courteously declining the overture but not slamming any doors. The letter said:

"St. Andrew's Lodge after having been recently acknowledged by their parent, cannot with justice to themselves renounce their allegiance nor do they feel that any Grand Lodge could receive them under its jurisdiction, without dishonoring themselves by such a reception. . . But should any occurrence take place that we can with honor embrace, and that will justify us as a Lodge in acknowledging your jurisdiction, we shall not hesitate a moment, being fully convinced by experience that we should thereby be relieved from much anxiety and trouble."

There the matter rested officially for the next seven years. Everybody knew however, that the event was only a question of time. The old animosities of "Ancients" and"Moderns" were dead and gone so far as Massachusetts was concerned. The non-intercourse regulations were conveniently forgotten. Mt. Lebanon Lodge and St, John's Lodge exchanged visits with St. Andrew's. On December 27, 1802 the Grand Lodge was celebrating the Feast of St. John. A committee of seven members from St. Andrew's, which was also keeping the feast, came over from the Green Dragon to Concert Hall and on being admitted informed the newly installed Grand Master, Isaiah Thomas, that "St. Andrew's Lodge would do themselves the honor of drinking his health and that of the officers and members of the Grand Lodge, with the honors of Masonry, at seven o'clock this evening precisely." At the appointed hour the reciprocal healths were drunk by each party in its own place of meeting. The leaven was working satisfactorily, if slowly.

As the end of the moratorium approached a committee was appointed to consider and report upon the petitions now on file. The committee reported on June 8, recommending Charters for seven Lodges, one of them at Starbrock, Demarara, and asking further time to complete their investigations. As a result thirteen Charters were issued in 1801. Among the Lodges added to the roll during this year was Union, of Nantucket. This Lodge was warranted by John Rowe in 1771. In those days when sailing crafty were the only means of communication with the main land, Nantucket was remote and isolated. The inhabitants developed a character of sturdy self reliance and a strongly clannish spirit, qualities which mark their descendants to this day. Once started, Union Lodge went serenely on its way, giving very little heed to what was passing on the main land. In December, 1801, Grand Lodge received a petition from Union Lodge asking that they be permitted to unite with the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts by submitting to its jurisdiction and asking that their original Warrant be endorsed to confirm the union. After a full and careful consideration the petition was unanimously granted.

The question of new Charters was only an incident in a much larger problem. How could the far flung units of Massachusetts Masonry be welded into an efficient and harmonious whole and brought into direct connection with the central authority and effectively controlled by the Grand Master. Grand Master Dunn addressed himself to this problem immediately upon taking office. Reports of membership and finance were obtained from the Lodges and carefully studied by a committee of seven, afterward increased to fourteen. A draft report was submitted to the Lodges for criticism and suggestion. After considering objections a report was made December 15, 1801, drawn "with a view to accommodate the wishes of the great body of the Craft." This was discussed article by article and finally unanimously adopted, forty-five Lodges being represented at the meeting. The report contained eleven articles, which now became an integral part of the law of the Jurisdiction,

  • Article I provided that all the Lodges in the Jurisdiction should be formed into Districts in such manner that no Lodge should, except in the District of Maine, be more than forty miles distant from any other Lodge in the District.
  • Article II provided that the Grand Master should annually appoint a District Deputy Grand Master for each District. The District Deputy should visit each Lodge in his District at least once a year, giving timely notice of his visit. He was to transmit to each Lodge all edicts and regulations of the Grand Lodge. He to receive all returns and moneys required by Grand Lodge. At the December Communication each year he was to turn in the money thus collected with a correct return of the Lodges in his District, exhibiting on the return the names of all Masons made in each Lodge. This return was to be delivered to the Grand Secretary and a duplicate financial account was to be delivered to the Grand Treasurer. He was to keep an account of his expenses and reimbursed from the Treasury on the order of the Grand Master.
  • Article III fixed the uniform fee for the degrees at eighteen dollars, two dollars of which should be paid to the Grand Lodge. The District Deputy Grand Master was to collect at the time of his annual visitation the returns of the Lodge, the quarterages due from the Lodge to the Grand Lodge, and two dollars for each initiate during the fiscal year.
  • Article IV provided for the preparation of a suitably attested Master Mason's diploma.
  • Article V provided a certificate of election to be issued by the Grand Lodge to each new Master.
  • Article VI provided that each Master who caused his Lodge to comply strictly with these regulations should be furnished gratis a diploma of his office. He should also receive a Master Mason's diploma for each candidate raised. These diplomas were to be issued to him by the District Deputy Grand Master, who should obtain them from the Grand Secretary on requisition and account for all so received in his annual return. Persons raised before the passage of these regulations could obtain diplomas on payment of seventy-five cents.
  • Article VII provided Past Master's diplomas gratis for all Past Masters who had complied with the regulations and whose Lodges were not in arrears to the Grand Lodge. Past Masters whose Lodges were in arrears could have diplomas gratis if the arrearages were settled before the December Quarterly of 1802.
  • Article VIII provided that each Lodge which furnished a correct return of the names of each member of the Lodge and transmitted to the Grand Secretary seventy-five cents for each member would be furnished with a diploma for each member so returned.
  • Article IX fixed the price of Charters at seventy-five dollars.
  • Article X abolished the existing charge of fifty cents for each making.
  • Article XI commanded the Grand Secretary to transmit a correct copy of these regulations to each Lodge and to each District Deputy Grand Master and thereafter immediately to forward to each District District Deputy a correct copy of any edict or regulation of the Grand Lodge, to be by the District Deputy Grand Master immediately communicated to each Lodge in his District.

It was especially noted that these regulations in no way superseded the constitutional requirement that all Lodges should be represented at each Quarterly Communication by the Master, Wardens, or a Proxy.

Only one protest is recorded. Essex Lodge a little later filed a formal protest. The protest was received and referred to the Committee of Fourteen. The Committee reported in due time and their report was accepted and filed. We do not know the nature of the objection or the report, as they were not spread upon the record and the original papers are not in existence. Nothing came of it however.

This may well be regarded as the most important piece of legislation ever enacted by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. It solved permanently the difficult problem which had confronted Grand Master Dunn and his associates. For the first time in its history the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts was a compact, consolidated body. Its disparate administration petitioned to be considered under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. The petition was referred to a committee and upon this report it was voted "That at the time the said charter was granted, there being no Grand Lodge in the State of Connecticut, this Lodge conceived that they had a right to grant the same; and until the formation and establishment of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut (in 1789) we considered Columbian Lodge under our jurisdiction. But since that time, conceiving according to our Rules and Regulations our Jurisdiction is to be at an end, we consider them as being under the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, and have not therefore exercised any authority over them." The Grand Secretary was directed to communicate this vote to the Grand Lodge of Connecticut.

On December 15, 1802 Isaiah Thomas was elected Grand Master and installed at the Feast of St. John on December 27. We have already met Thomas as the printer and publisher of the Constitutions of 1792 and 1798.

Thomas was born in Boston January 19, 1749, and died in Worcester April 4, 1831. He was the son of a roving and unsuccessful member of a good family. When the boy was three years old his father died leaving a penniless widow and five children. When Isaiah was only six his mother apprenticed him to Zachariah Fowle, a printer. Fowle himself was a worthless character and his shop a poor one. The little boy was put to work setting type. Of course he had no idea what it was all about and at first.his work was purely mechanical, picking out the types and arranging them according to the copy before him. In order to work at the case he had to stand on a long stool Eighteen inches high. He said of himself that he had not above six weeks schooling in his life, and that not very good. Aside from this and what elementary instruction his mother gave him, he was entirely self-educated. His thirst for knowledge was insatiable, and when he reached manhood he had an education far above the average of his time.

For a time Fowle had a partner named Draper who was a kind man and a good printer and was very helpful to the young apprentice. When Thomas was about twelve the partnership was dissolved and the boy appears to have borne the burden of the business. At seventeen, already a good workman, he left Fowle hoping to go to London. He got no further than Halifax where he obtained a position on a local paper. His outspoken opposition to the Stamp Act annoyed the authorities and frightened his employer so much that he was obliged to leave town.

The next five years were spent in wandering in search of work and of the never-to-be-realized opportunity to go to London. We find him in Portsmouth, N. H., back in Boston a little while, in Wilmington, N. C., in Charleston, S. C. and back in Boston in 1770. Here he again joined forces with Fowle and started the publication of the Massachusetts Spy.

Fowle proved impossible, and the next year Thomas assumed Fowle*s liabilities and so got rid of him and obtained the ownership of the plant. This was the real beginning of his life work, though much hard struggling lay ahead of him. He was an ardent Whig and soon became one of the most outspoken adherents of the popular cause. Coaxing, bullying, and even threats on his life failed to move him. Governor Hutchinson would have suppressed his paper, but the Council would not support him. The Council summoned Thomas before it, but he refused to appear. Gov. Hutchinson ordered the Attorney General to draw an indictment against him for libel. The Suffolk County Grand Jury promptly threw it out. A second attempt was made in Essex County on the ground that the libel was circulated there, but the Essex Grand Jury would have none of it. Boston, however, was becoming too hot to hold him and after some days of hiding, on April 16, 1775, on the advice of John Hancock he removed his presses and type and a good part of the rest of the contents of his printing office to Worcester. His home and his business headquarters were there for the rest of his life.

Then followed years of struggle, gradually leading to success. By degrees he built up the most important printing and publishing business in America. He had his own paper mill, print shop, and bindery. He established several branches in different places. A study made in recent years has collected over nine hundred titles of publications of the Worcester house and its branches. His fortune, though not to be compared with modern estates, was large for those days and was always administered in a spirit of stewardship.

His zeal for the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge was life long. He was one of the founders of the famous Boston Athenaeum. He founded the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester and gave it his library, one of the largest in the country, and a liberal cash donation as well. The library of the society today includes more than a million items. In 1810 he published A History of Printing in America which has never been superseded as authority for the period which it covers. Truly the penniless six year old apprentice went far.

After the Revolution he appears to have taken no aggressive position of political leadership with one very important exception. He very strongly advocated the Constitution of 1797, though the feeling in his part of the state was strongly opposed to it.

In appearance Thomas was tall, with a fine bearing and keen, observant eyes. He was always noticeably careful about his dress and appearance. When and where Thomas took his Masonic degrees we do not know. He f first appears on our records as the Master of Trinity Lodge , of Lancaster, in 1783. There was then no Lodge in Worcester. Thomas introduced Masonry there by organizing Morning Star Lodge in 1793. Be was its first Master and served it in that capacity at intervals for seven terms during the next ten years. In Grand Lodge he was Senior Grand Warden in 1795, 1796, and 1797, the years covered by the Grand Mastership or his old friend Paul Revere. Such was the man who was elected to the office of Grand Master at the age of fifty-three at the full tide of his powers and at the summit of his great career.

When Thomas became Grand lister the great problems which confronted his predecessors had been substantially solved. The reforms inaugurated by the epochal legislation of December 1801 were in working order and the consequences were beginning to be felt. Details however needed to be worked out. At the March Quarterly in 1805 the attention of Grand Lodge was called to the desirability of establishing a uniform mode of working throughout the jurisdiction. It will be remembered that at the union of 1792 the ritual of the St. John's Grand Lodge was recommended to all Lodges and enjoined upon all new Lodges, There had never been any supervision of the ritual, nor any definite method of instruction in the ritual. New Lodges has been formed with very little regard to the ritualistic attainments of the officers. With every good intention on the part of all concerned the ritual work of the Lodges was in a state of dire confusion. After debating the matter at length Grand Lodge referred it to the Grand Master with power.

The Grand Master commissioned Benjamin Gleason to be Grand Lecturer and Instructor for one year ending August 1, 1806, He was to visit every Masonic District, making arrangements with the District Deputy Grand Masters to assemble the Officers and such members of the Lodges as seemed desirable, seeing to it that every Lodge received instruction. He was to spend from six to twelve days as the occasion demanded with each group, instructing them thoroughly in all parts of the ritual. Gleason's work appears to have been successful. The Grand Lectureship, however, was not established as a permanent part of the Grand Lodge organization until 1843.

At the December Quarterly, 1803, it was voted that jewels be provided for the District Deputy Grand Masters. At the March Quarterly of 1805 a design for the jewel and collar was submitted and adopted and the Grand Treasurer was authorized to procure them in at the expiration of their office. The design then adopted is still in use. The District Deputies, however, were not given their status as members of the Grand Lodge until the December Quarterly of 1806.

At the December Quarterly of 1803, The Tyrian Lodge, of Gloucester, which (it will be remembered) was the first Lodge chartered by the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, submitted a formal request to know their grade and number under the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Realizing the important implication of this request, Grand Lodge referred the whole matter of grades and numbers to a committee. The committee reported to the September Quarterly of 1804, and their report was unanimously accepted. They reported

  1. that they had ascertained the dates of all Charters, and were of opinion that the Lodges should take rank in Grand Lodge by seniority of their Charters;
  2. a rather labored explanation sets forth why Rising States Lodge should have the rank and seniority of St. Andrew's; and
  3. "whereas great inconveniences have arisen on account of the numerical arrangements of some Lodges, your committee are further of opinion that all numbers now existing in the designation of Lodges, shall be abolished."

This answers the common question, "Why do Massachusetts Lodges have no numbers?"

During this administration the question of quarters came up again. It will be remembered that an unsuccessful attempt had been made to purchase Concert Hall, where the Grand Lodge had long met as tenants. Apparently the arrangement had ceased to be satisfactory. At the December Quarterly of 1803 a committee was appointed to devise ways and means to erect a hall for the use of the Grand Lodge. At the March Quarterly of 1804 a committee was appointed to secure a more suitable place of meeting for the Grand Lodge. This committee had no difficulty, and the September Quarterly found the Grand Lodge installed in the hotel kept by Bro. John Vila, at 17 Court Street.

At the December Quarterly the committee on ways and means made a report which was optimistic, to say the least. After stating that it is highly probable that the several Lodges will recognize the advantage and honor to the whole Fraternity of having a Hall, the committee felt sure that the Lodges would loan money to Grand Lodge for the purpose and would give certain sums in addition. The loan was to be paid by annual deductions from the dues of the Lodges to Grand Lodge. Subscriptions were also to be solicited from individuals. The Committee thought $22,400.00 might be raised, allocated as follows:

  • "The loan, your committee suppose, may average at least, one hundred dollars from each Lodge, which would amount to $8,800.00
  • From the funds of each Lodge, 25 dollars as a gift may be expected, which would amount to $2,200.00
  • From the funds of the Grand Lodge, in due time might be raised $3,000.00

A subscription from individuals, as a gift, perhaps $4,000.00 Loans from individuals to the Grand Lodge, your committee suppose, might be raised $5,000.00

  • TOTAL $22,400.00

A committee was also raised to petition the Legislative for a Charter of Incorporation which would permit the Grand Lodge to hold the real estate. The committee came back to the March Quarterly of 1805 with a report that the Legislature refused the Charter. The Committee was continued in being, with directions to try again at the next Legislature, but apparently the effort looked hopeless, for we hear no more of it for the present.

In the March Quarterly of 1803 we begin to get intimations that all was not well in Rising States Lodge. The Junior Deacon, Senior Steward, and two private members of the Lodge were tried in the Lodge for very serious Masonic misconduct and duly punished therefor. It appears that the Senior Steward had duplicate keys to the closet in which the Charter and jewels of the Lodge were kept. He took the Charter out of town for a little while and then called it a traveling Charter. He then took the Charter and jewels to a group of persons claiming to be Masons and pretending to act under the authority of the Charter, conferring "higher degrees." They solicited members for the clandestine organization. The Grand Marshal got wind of the matter and raided one of the meetings. He found the Rising States Charter there and the Junior Deacon and Senior Steward wearing the jewels of the Senior and Junior Wardens of Rising States. He broke up the clandestine organization and took possession of the Charter and jewels.

At about the same time three other members of Rising States left, apparently unceremoniously, and joined The Massachusetts Lodge. Rising States passed a vote which the three Brethren construed as expulsion. They appealed to Grand Lodge and after reference to &y( committee and report Grand Lodge voted that the action of Rising States did not amount to an act of expulsion but merely expressed the sense of the Lodge that by proposing themselves as candidates to The Massachusetts Lodge the three Brethren virtually withdrew themselves from Rising States Lodge.

At the September Quarterly in 1803 a petition was received from American Union Lodge, of Marietta, Ohio, praying for a renewal of its Charter and to be received under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. It will be remembered that this Lodge was chartered in the American army during the siege of Boston. The Lodge followed the army until the close of the war. It did not surrender its charter, but some of the members, army officers who settled in Ohio, took the Charter with them and reorganized the Lodge at Marietta. This was the group who petitioned and their petition was granted.

At the March Quarterly of 1804 a memorial was received from King Solomon's Lodge "setting forth the impoverished state of their funds, by reason of losses sustained, and extraordinary expenses incurred in erecting the monument on the heights of Charlestown, in memory of our Most Worshipful Brother, the late General Joseph Warren." The memorial was referred to a committee on whose recommendation it was voted to remit all dues from the Lodge for initiates prior to the passing of the resolution of December, 1801, and to credit the Lodge fifty dollars on the new account.

The references to the monument makes this the proper place to record a very interesting episode in our history. After the battle of Bunker Hill the body of Warren was roughly buried, with those of others, where killed on the field which, it will be remembered, was in the hands of the British. After the evacuation of Boston, March 17, 1776, nine months after the battle,search was made for the body of Warren near the spot where he had been seen to fall. The body was found and was identified by a missing finger joint which had been removed on account of a felon, and by dental work in the mouth. The body was removed to King's Chapel and then buried with imposing ceremonies on April 8, 1776. Many persons visited the battle field, but there was nothing to mark the spot or commemorate the dead.

On November 11, 1794, King Solomon's Lodge voted "to erect a monument in Mr. Russell's pasture {provided the land can be procured) such as will do honor to the Lodge, in memory of Warren and placed a committee in charge with authority to draw on the Lodge treasury for the cost and report their doings to the Lodge." Evidently a good deal of preliminary work had been done, for on December 2, just three weeks later, the committee reported that Mr. Russell had given a deed of the land and the monument had been erected. The Lodge at once proceeded to dedicate it. The monument was placed as nearly as possible on the spot where Warren fell. It was of wood and consisted of a square Tuscan pillar, eighteen feet high, on a base eight feet high, surmounted by a gilded.urn bearing the age of Warren enclosed in a square and compasses. On one side of the base was a suitably inscribed stone tablet. The whole was surrounded by a fence. It cost the Lodge about five hundred dollars.

This was the only monument on Bunker Hill until the corner-stone of the present imposing shaft was laid in 1825. At that time King Solomon's Lodge granted its plot of ground to the Bunker Hill Monument Association on condition that some trace of its monument be given a place in the new one. The Association had a replica of the old monument beautifully executed in fine Italian marble and placed it in the well-room of the new monument directly opposite the entrance.

During Thomas' administration thirteen new Lodges were chartered, some of them in 1803. The subsequent slackening up of activity doubtless reflects the economic conditions of the time. American commerce and industry were beginning to feel the effect of the injuries inflicted and restrictions imposed on neutral commerce by England and France in the wars which lasted with but brief truces until the fall of Napoleon in 1815.

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